Fenghuo and Shentong

China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) has developed the Fenghuo and Shentong series military communications satellites, positioned in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) to provide secured digital voice and data communications for military users.


Fenghuo (FH, “Beacon”) is a family of tactical communications satellites designed to provide Communications-on-the-Move (COTM) capability, which used multiple steerable spot beam antenna technology to enable ground users to communicate while on the move. The first generation Fenghuo 1 (FH-1) was based on CAST’s DFH-3A satellite bus. Fenghuo 1 (using a cover name ChinaSat 22) was launched in January 2000 and positioned at 98ºE on GEO. It was succeeded by Fenghuo 1A (ChinaSat 22A) launched in September 2009.

The second-generation Fenghuo 2 (FH-2) was based on the larger DFH-4 satellite bus. The satellite has a mass of 5,320 kg and an orbital life of 11 years. The first satellite Fenghuo 2A (ChinaSat 1A) was launched in September 2011 and positioned at 130° E on GEO. The second satellite Fenghuo 2C (ChinaSat 1C) launched in December 2015 was positioned at 81.5° E on GEO.


Shentong (ST, “Devine Communications”) is a family of strategic communications satellite providing secured voice/data communications. The first generation Shentong 1 (ST-1) was based on the DFH-3A satellite bus, and carried 4 Ku-band and 8 C-band transponders. The three-axis stabilised satellite weighted 2,300 kg in orbit, and featured a number of new technologies, including China’s first Ku-band transponder, secured uplink transmission for satellite antenna control, and the most powerful onboard data processor at the time. Shentong 1 (under the cover name ChinaSat 20) was launched in November 2003. The satellite was positioned at 103° E on GEO. The satellite was succeeded by Shentong 1A (ChinaSat 20A) launched in November 2010.

The second-generation Shentong 2 was based on the DFH-4 satellite bus. Shentong 2A (ChinaSat 2A) was launched in May 2012 and positioned at 98° E on GEO. Shentong 2C (ChinaSat 2C) was launched in November 2015 and positioned at 103° E on GEO.


# Date LV Launch Site Pad Payload Status
1 2000-01-26 CZ-3A Xichang LC2 Fenghuo 1 (ChinaSat 22) Success
2 2003-11-14 CZ-3A Xichang LC2 Shentong 1 (ChinaSat 20) Success
3 2009-09-12 CZ-3A Xichang LC2 Fenghuo 1A (Chinasat 22A) Success
4 2010-11-25 CZ-3A Xichang LC2 Shentong 1A (ChinaSat 20A) Success
5 2011-09-18 CZ-3B/E Xichang LC2 Fenghuo 2A (ChinaSat 1A) Success
6 2012-05-26 CZ-3B/E Xichang LC2 Shentong 2A (ChinaSat 2A) Success
7 2015-11-03 CZ-3B/E Xichang LC2 Shentong 2C (ChinaSat 2C) Success
8 2015-12-09 CZ-3B/E Xichang LC2 Fenghuo 2C (ChinaSat 1C) Success

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