Haiyang (Ocean)

Haiyang (HY, “Ocean”) is a series of maritime survey and observation satellites funded by the the State Oceanic Administration (SOA).

Overview

Name:...............Haiyang (HY)
Discipline:.........Oceans
Type:...............Government / military
No. of missions:....3
First mission.......2002
Last mission........2011
Sponsor agency......State Oceanic Administration (SOA)
Contractor..........CAST / China SpaceSat Co. Ltd.

Haiyang 1

Haiyang 1 (HY-1) is the first-generation maritime surveillance satellite, designed to provide real-time observation on Chinese coastal and offshore waters. The satellite was designed to observe observe sea optical characteristics, chlorophyll concentration, surface temperature, suspended silt charge, soluble organic matter and pollution. It can also be used to observe sea ice, shallow sea terrain, ocean current characteristics and atmospheric aerosol on the sea surface.

The satellite was designed and built by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST), based on the CAST2000 small satellite bus. The box-shape satellite is three-axis-stabilised and Earth-oriented, with the twin solar wings oriented to the sun. The satellite incorporates an integrated on-board operation management system.

Onboard payloads include a 10-band ocean colour scanner (1,100 m spatial resolution) with a revisit period of 3 days and a 4-band CCD camera (25 0m spatial resolution) for maritime observations with a revisit period of 7 days. Remote sensing data on the other part of the world can be stored in the onboard data storage device (80MB) for delayed replay. The transmission speed is 5.32 Mbps.

Satellite bus:......CAST2000
Mass:...............368 kg
Dimensions:.........1.2 m x 1.1 m x 0.996 m
Solar panel span:...7.529 m
Orbit:..............798 km
Inclination:........98.8º
Stabilisation.......3-axis
Designed life.......2 years

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Haiyang 2

Haiyang 2 (HY-2) is an ocean observation satellite designed to collect measurement of ocean dynamic and environmental parameters in the microwave region, to monitor wind setup (wind vector), sea level heights, sea surface temperatures, waves, currents, tides, and storms in order to provide disaster relief and weather forecasting information. A secondary mission of the satellite was to demonstrate laser communications between satellite and ground.

Based on the CAST Phoenix Eye satellite bus, Haiyang 2 is equipped with a microwave radar altimeter working in the Ku- and C-band to measure sea level heights, a microwave scatterometer, a microwave radiometer (MWR), and a calibration radiometer. It is also equipped with a secondary mission payload to test laser communications with ground. Spacecraft telemetry, tracking and control is in unified S-band (USB). The downlink of payload data is in X-band, with four ground receiving stations located in Beijing, Hangzhou (Zhejiang), Sanya (Hainan), and Mudanjiang (Heilongjiang).

The development of Haiyang 2 began in April 2007, and the first experimental satellite for technology validation rolled out in May 2011. It was launched atop a CZ-4B launch vehicle from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centre on 16 August 2011. The satellite was handed over to its user on 2 March 2012 for trial and evaluation. Two follow-up satellites have been planned for operational use.

Satellite bus:......CAST Phoenix Eye 
Mass (gross)........1,575 kg
Dimensions:.........3.59 m x 3.25 m x 3.25 m
Solar panel span:...8.5 m
Orbit:..............971 km
Inclination:........99.4º
Stabilisation.......3-axis
Designed life.......3 years

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Missions

# Date LV Launch Site Pad Payload Status
1 2002-05-15 CZ-4B Taiyuan LC7 Haiyang 1A Success
2 2007-04-11 CZ-4C Taiyuan LC7 Haiyang 1B Success
3 2011-08-15 CZ-4B Taiyuan LC9 Haiyang 2A Success

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